QUOTATION REFERENCES

(revision 10-11-05)

These quotation references should be read in conjunction with the hardback text, and the printed bibliographic information at the end of the book. Numbers refer to page numbers in the text. AI = Author’s interview; E = Email with author; Occasionally (and inconsistently) I call out a bit of information in brackets [] instead of quotes when I chose to give a reference for information but not a quotation from the text. Some additional web references of interest sometimes are inserted as appropriate.

 

Chapter 1: The Mythology of George

3                    “[George Cukor once] said ‘I’m not a film-maker...” Farber, Stephen. “George Lucas: The Stinky Kid Hits the Big Time,” Film Quarterly, Vol 27, No. 3. Spring 1974.

3                    “I’m not a technological guy at all...”: George Lucas, AI, 4/28/04.

3                    “I’m just somebody who wants to make movies...” Ibid.

4                    “mentor/tormentor”: Thomas Brown, AI, 6/21/02.

5                    “We respect each other...”: Vallely, Jean. “The Empire Strikes Back and So Does Filmmaker George Lucas with his Sequel to Star Wars,” Rolling Stone, June 12, 1980.

5                    “futuristic plant that would place filmmaking squarely in the technological era…”: Knapp, Dan. “A Visit with Francis Ford Coppola,” Performing Arts, June 1970, Vol 4, No. 6.

5                    “The reason for all this stuff...” : Ibid.

5                    We can bounce ideas off each other…”: Farber, Stephen. “George Lucas: The Stinky Kid Hits the Big Time,” Film Quarterly, Vol 27, No. 3. Spring 1974.

5                    The fact that he’s always doing crazy things influences me…“: Vallely, Jean. “The Empire Strikes Back and So Does Filmmaker George Lucas with his Sequel to Star Wars,” Rolling Stone, June 12, 1980.

5                    Francis and I were both very interested…”: George Lucas, AI, 4/28/04.

5                    It’s like the period in the late 15th century…”: Ibid.

5                    And then along came oil painting…”: Ibid.

6                    All art is technology…”: Ibid.

7                    I was as normal as you can get…”: Harmetz, Aljean. “Burden of Dreams: George Lucas,” American Film, June 1983.

7                    I really wanted to go to art school…”: Yarish, Alice. “George Lucas—hell-raiser to millionaire,” San Francisco Examiner, Feb. 20, 1980.

7                    I met him and I naturally liked anybody…”: Haskel Wexler, AI, 12/3/04.

8                    I sensed a guy…”: Ibid.

8                    …I just turned my back on Hollywood…”: “George Lucas, Maker of Films,” PBS interview/documentary 1971.

9                    All my friends thought I was crazy…”: Farber, Stephen. “George Lucas: The Stinky Kid Hits the Big Time,” Film Quarterly, Vol 27, No. 3. Spring 1974.

10                When I went in, I just kinda ambled in…”: “George Lucas, Maker of Films,” PBS interview/documentary 1971.

10                [his first student film festival prize]: Kline, Sally (ed). George Lucas Interviews. University Press of Mississippi, 1999, p65.

10                [seventeen other awards]: Salewicz, Chris. George Lucas Close Up—The Making of His Movies. Thunder’s Mouth Press, New York, 1999, p13.

10                It wasn’t movies” : “George Lucas, Maker of Films,” PBS interview/documentary 1971.

10                I realized I had found myself…”: Champlin, Charles. George Lucas—The Creative Impulse. Harry N. Abrams Inc., USA, 1992, p18.

10                The only school for the cinema…”: Roberts, Kenneth H and Sharples, Win Jr. A Primer for Film-Making; A Complete Guide to 16 and 35mm Film Production. Bobbs-Merrill Company, USA, 1976, p 491.

11                Everyone did it…” gwlHx3wPuB

11                I was introduced to film editing…”: Champlin, Charles. George Lucas—The Creative Impulse. Harry N. Abrams Inc., USA, 1992, p18.

12                I was an editing freak…”: Pye, Michael and Miles, Linda. The Movie Brats: How the film generation took over Hollywood. Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1979

13                Maybe I heard things…”: Ondaatje, Michael. The Conversations—Walter Murch and the Art of Editing Film. Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 2002, p6.

13                think of all the money we’ll save…”: Ibid. Paraphrased, p6

13                I discovered then that editing images…”: Ibid. p9

14                [new wave info] “The French New Wave” by Stephen Nottingham. http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/Stephen_Nottingham/cintxt2.htm

14                [add’l new wave info]  http://www.moviemaker.com/issues/47/frenchnew.html

14                [add’l new wave info] http://www.harvardfilmarchive.org/calendars/02mayjune/newwave.html

15                every film student on the planet...”: Legacy of Filmmakers: The Early Years of American Zoetrope,” produced, written and directed by Gary Leva; © 2004 Warner Bros. Entertainment, Inc.

15                [sound and men] Ondaatje, Michael. The Conversations—Walter Murch and the Art of Editing Film. Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 2002, p26.

15                [Cristiani] AI, Gabriella Cristiana, n.d. 1990

15-16     [Fields biography] from Peary, Gerald. “Verna Fields.” The Real Paper—Oct. 23, 1980. www.geraldpeary.com/essays/def/fields-verna.html

16                I had these unmarked airports…”: Ibid.

16                Fields was famous…”: Entire paragraph and Fields quote paraphrased from Biskind, Peter. Easy Riders, Raging Bulls. Bloomsbury, London, 1998, p.237.

16                It’s a very simple idea...”: “George Lucas, Maker of Films,” PBS interview/documentary 1971.

17                With documentary films, I got used to shooting a ton of material...”: Hearn, Marcus. The Cinema of George Lucas. Harry N. Abrams Inc., New York, 2005, p 25.

18                As we were going in for our final interview…”: Ondaatje, Michael. The Conversations—Walter Murch and the Art of Editing Film. Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 2002, p13.

 

Chapter 2: Road Trip

19                People are hampered by money…”: Cowie, Peter. Coppola. Andre Deutsch Ltd, London, 1989, p. 43. (quote from a conversation with writer Gay Talese).

19                So I decided I was going to risk it all…”: Ibid  p.33.

20                [Background]: Biskind, Peter. Easy Riders, Raging Bulls. Bloomsbury, London, 1998, p35.

21                “With it came the big time way…” gwlHx3wPuB

21                Francis was the kind of director…”: Howard Kazanjian, AI, 10/28/04.

21                We’d sit around…”: Ibid.

21                Hey I’m here on the lot…”: Ibid. Conversation recounted by Kazanjian.

22                See anything interesting?”: Conversation recounted by Coppola in -- Champlin, Charles. George Lucas—The Creative Impulse. Harry N. Abrams Inc., USA, 1992.

23                very anti-story, anti-character kind of guy…”: Ondaatje, Michael. The Conversations—Walter Murch and the Art of Editing Film. Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 2002, p18.

23                I’m trying to see what it’s all about…”: “George Lucas, Maker of Films,” PBS interview/documentary 1971.

23               I’m not a good writer…”: Sturhahn, Larry.” The Filming of American Graffiti,” Filmmaker’s Newsletter, March 1974.

23                You have to learn to write…”: gwlHx3wPuB.

23                I was acting irresponsibly…”: “Filmmaker: A Diary by George Lucas,” 1970

23                Francis could sell ice to Eskimos…”: Biskind, Peter. Easy Riders, Raging Bulls. Bloomsbury, London, 1998, p90.

24                [Mame info]: Karman, Mal. “Francis Ford Coppola,” San Francisco Magazine, May 1973.

25                Unless you can get the police...”: “Filmmaker: A Diary by George Lucas,” 1970

26                A lot of my friends…”: “Ibid.

26                The point is, I tried as honestly as I could…”: Ibid.

26                Obviously the concept of a filmmaker…”: Ibid.

27                We began to feel like Robin Hood…”: Cowie, Peter. Coppola. Andre Deutsch Ltd, London, 1989, p56.

27                Francis walked in and saw two arc projectors...”: Legacy of Filmmakers: The Early Years of American Zoetrope,” produced, written and directed by Gary Leva; © 2004 Warner Bros. Entertainment, Inc.

27                They said this is exactly…”: Pollock, Dale. Skywalking: The Life and Films of George Lucas. Da Capo Press, New York, 1999, p85

27                He inspired us both...”: Cowie, Peter. Coppola. Andre Deutsch Ltd, London, 1989, p57.

27                I kinda went a little crazy...”: Legacy of Filmmakers: The Early Years of American Zoetrope,” produced, written and directed by Gary Leva; © 2004 Warner Bros. Entertainment, Inc.

28                I had this notion...”: Pollock, Dale. Skywalking: The Life and Films of George Lucas. Da Capo Press, New York, 1999, p86

28                [Dropping almost $100,000 overnight]: Biskind, Peter. Easy Riders, Raging Bulls. Bloomsbury, London, 1998, p91. Cross referenced with a variety of sources.

28                Knickerbocker, Paine. “A Lively New Movie-Making Project for the City,” San Francisco Chronicle, Oct. 1969.

27                [tons of new equipment] Cowie, Peter. Coppola. Andre Deutsch Ltd, London, 1989, p57.

28                [Laterna] Biskind, Peter. Easy Riders, Raging Bulls. Bloomsbury, London, 1998, p91.

28                The many bedrooms...”: Quote by Coppola from the forward to -- Champlin, Charles. George Lucas—The Creative Impulse. Harry N. Abrams Inc., USA, 1992.

29                It was a beautiful place to live...”: Pollock, Dale. Skywalking: The Life and Films of George Lucas. Da Capo Press, New York, 1999, p85

28                [Laterna]: Legacy of Filmmakers: The Early Years of American Zoetrope,” produced, written and directed by Gary Leva; © 2004 Warner Bros. Entertainment, Inc.

28                I was thrilled to see a beautiful old mansion...” Ibid.

28                George and I fantasized...”: Quote by Coppola from the forward to -- Champlin, Charles. George Lucas—The Creative Impulse. Harry N. Abrams Inc., USA, 1992.

29                We were a new generation...”: Legacy of Filmmakers: The Early Years of American Zoetrope,” produced, written and directed by Gary Leva; © 2004 Warner Bros. Entertainment, Inc.

28                There was no way...”: Ibid.

29                [data] AZ Financial Statement as of 1/31/70

30                [After Mr. Jordan], Coppola plans to take off...”: “Coppola to Set Up Frisco Filmery,” Daily Variety, Nov. 27, 1968.

30                Do you know anybody…”: Lucas recalling conversation with Coppola from -- Ondaatje, Michael. The Conversations—Walter Murch and the Art of Editing Film. Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 2002, p18.

30                Francis needed somebody...”: Ondaatje, Michael. The Conversations—Walter Murch and the Art of Editing Film. Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 2002, p13.

30                Here it is…”: Tom Scott, E, paraphrasing conversation between Murch and Malkin.

31                “[Francis] didn’t know me...” Cowie, Peter. Coppola. Andre Deutsch Ltd, London, 1989, p 55.

32                The lesson of Easy Rider...”: Sweeney, Louise. “The Movie Business is Alive and Well and Living in San Francisco,” Show, April 1970, p34.

32                [data] Ondaatje, Michael. The Conversations—Walter Murch and the Art of Editing Film. Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 2002, p20.

32                We got a lot of new equipment...”: “George Lucas, Maker of Films,” PBS interview/documentary 1971.

32                I want editing equipment...”: Knapp, Dan. “A Visit with Francis Ford Coppola,” Performing Arts, June 1970, Vol 4, No. 6.

32                Someday, [Lucas] predicts...”: Blum, Walter. “A Director with New Directions,” San Francisco Sunday Examiner and Chronicle, Feb. 1, 1970.

32                Technology obsessed Francis...”: Cowie, Peter. Coppola. Andre Deutsch Ltd, London, 1989, p16.

33                You had to admire a guy…”: Biskind, Peter. Easy Riders, Raging Bulls. Bloomsbury, London, 1998, p92.

33                [data] Knapp, Dan. “A Visit with Francis Ford Coppola,” Performing Arts, June 1970, Vol 4, No. 6.

33                [General] Biskind, Peter. Easy Riders, Raging Bulls. Bloomsbury, London, 1998, p91.

33                [General] Sweeney, Louise. “The Movie Business is Alive and Well and Living in San Francisco,” Show, April 1970, p3.

33                [data]: Blum, Walter. “A Director with New Directions,” San Francisco Sunday Examiner and Chronicle, Feb. 1, 1970.

34                [data]: http://slick.org/deathwatch/mailarchive/msg00829.html

34                Is there anybody...”: Lucas recounting conversation with Coppola from -- Ondaatje, Michael. The Conversations—Walter Murch and the Art of Editing Film. Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 2002, p19.

35                When George saw 21-87…”: Silberman, Steve. “Life After Darth,” Wired, May 2005.

35                all interesting, adventurous scripts...”: Farber, Stephen. “George Lucas: The Stinky Kid Hits the Big Time,” Film Quarterly, Vol 27, No. 3. Spring 1974.

35                [data]: Stone, Judy. “George Lucas,” San Francisco Chronicle, May 23, 1971.

35                We wanted the whole picture...”: American Cinematographer, 10/71

36                Because of this...”: American Cinematographer, 10/71

36                Francis was letting me do whatever I wanted...”: “George Lucas, Maker of Films,” PBS interview/documentary 1971.

36                “Since I planned to edit the picture myself...” gwlHx3wPuB

36                [data]:  UPI 5/5/70

36                probably the most advanced filmmaking facility...”: CVB Newsletter, 12/23/69

36                This is a true capitalistic venture...”: Sweeney, Louise. “The Movie Business is Alive and Well and Living in San Francisco,” Show, April 1970.

37                The measure of American Zoetrope’s promise...”: Caen, Herb. San Francisco Chronicle, Jan. 8, 1970.

37                It all seemed terribly chic...”: Nachman, Gerald. “Coppola of Zoetrope—Older, Wiser and Poorer,” San Francisco Chronicle, 1971.

37                I go out of the cage...”: Sweeney, Louise. “The Movie Business is Alive and Well and Living in San Francisco,” Show, April 1970, p82.

37                [data]:  Knapp, Dan. “A Visit with Francis Ford Coppola,” Performing Arts, June 1970, Vol 4, No. 6.

38                Coppola envisions…”: Ibid.

38                Zoetrope has already employed...”: Knapp, Dan. “A Visit with Francis Ford Coppola,” Performing Arts, June 1970, Vol 4, No. 6.

39                This is all junk…”: GWL paraphrasing the studios; Vallely, Jean. “The Empire Strikes Back and So Does Filmmaker George Lucas with his Sequel to Star Wars,” Rolling Stone, June 12, 1980.

39                [Warners] went back to hard-core entertainment films...”: Farber, Stephen. “George Lucas: The Stinky Kid Hits the Big Time,” Film Quarterly, Vol 27, No. 3. Spring 1974.

39                Quiet once more descended...”: Nachman, Gerald. “Coppola of Zoetrope—Older, Wiser and Poorer,” San Francisco Chronicle, 1971.

 

Chapter 3: The Restoration

41                One thing that comes…”: Campbell, Joseph. The Power of Myth. Doubleday, New York, 1988.

41                It’s been an interesting…”: Nachman, Gerald. “Coppola of Zoetrope—Older, Wiser and Poorer,” San Francisco Chronicle, 1971.

41                [The deal with Paramount was]: Bergan, Ronald. Francis Ford Coppola Close Up—The Making of His Movies. Thunder’s Mouth Press, New York, 1997, p38.

41                A lot of people thought…”: Nachman, Gerald. “Coppola of Zoetrope—Older, Wiser and Poorer,” San Francisco Chronicle, 1971.

42                I was left high and dry…”: Vallely, Jean. “The Empire Strikes Back and So Does Filmmaker George Lucas with his Sequel to Star Wars,” Rolling Stone, June 12, 1980.

42                a solemn bearded man…”: Pollock, Dale. Skywalking: The Life and Films of George Lucas. Da Capo Press, New York, 1999.

44                Lucas is preparing another…”: Knapp, Dan. “A Visit with Francis Ford Coppola,” Performing Arts, June 1970, Vol 4, No. 6.

43                You can do better…”: http://www.cinescene.com/dash/lumiere.html

43                The cinema is…”: http://www.holonet.khm.de/visual_alchemy/lumiere.html

47                [A Warhol Mao silkscreen]: Biskind, Peter. Easy Riders, Raging Bulls. Bloomsbury, London, 1998. p167.

47                I was getting a lot of razz…”: Vallely, Jean. “The Empire Strikes Back and So Does Filmmaker George Lucas with his Sequel to Star Wars,” Rolling Stone, June 12, 1980.

48                You could see the way…”: Ibid.

48                This movie is not…”: Ibid.

49                There was no reason…”: Farber, Stephen. “George Lucas: The Stinky Kid Hits the Big Time,” Film Quarterly, Vol 27, No. 3. Spring 1974.

49                a horror film about…”: Knapp, Dan. “A Visit with Francis Ford Coppola,” Performing Arts, June 1970, Vol 4, No. 6.

49                [Walter Murch double-timed]: Ondaatje, Michael. The Conversations—Walter Murch and the Art of Editing Film. Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 2002, p166.

49                [He bought a radio station]: Biskind, Peter. Easy Riders, Raging Bulls. Bloomsbury, London, 1998, p167.

50               “When the idea took him…”: Clouzot, Claire. “The Morning of the Magician: George Lucas and Star Wars,” Ercan, Sept. 15, 1977 (Translated from French by Alisa Belanger).

50                It’s James Bond and 2001…”: Farber, Stephen. “George Lucas: The Stinky Kid Hits the Big Time,” Film Quarterly, Vol 27, No. 3. Spring 1974.

51                [They turned the dining room]: Deborah Brown Mitchie, AI, 9/23/04.

52                he could make a little wine…”: http://www.niebaum-coppola.com/site.php

52                [He and Eleanor bought]: Bergan, Ronald. Francis Ford Coppola Close Up—The Making of His Movies. Thunder’s Mouth Press, New York, 1997, p52.

53                [While Lucas began to work]: Jenkins, Gary. Empire Building—The Remarkable Real Life Story of Star Wars. Citadel Press, New Jersey, 1997, p57.

 

Chapter 4: The Star Wars

55                Many people feel…”: 21-87, by Arthur Lipsett – (audio track courtesy of Steve Silberman).

55                I took that script…”: “The Empire Strikes Back and So Does Filmmaker George Lucas with his Sequel to Star Wars,” Rolling Stone, June 12, 1980.

56                I couldn’t describe in words…”: AI, anonymous employee.

57                The lightsabers, in particular…”: Gary Kurtz, AI, 3/14/05.

57                used space…”: Jenkins, Gary. Empire Building—The Remarkable Real Life Story of Star Wars. Citadel Press, New Jersey, 1997, p61.

57                Mass of computer lights…”: Lucas, George; Star Wars manuscript.

57                someone in an airtight garment…”:Ibid.

58                When I made the deal…”: “The Empire Strikes Back and So Does Filmmaker George Lucas with his Sequel to Star Wars,” Rolling Stone, June 12, 1980.

58                I’ll do it for the deal…”: Ibid.

59                I have a particular affection…”: Clouzot, Claire. “The Morning of the Magician: George Lucas and Star Wars,” Ercan, Sept. 15, 1977 (Translated from French by Alisa Belanger).

59                We need another…”: Ben Burtt, AI, 10/28/04.

60                [They talked about an early]: Ben Burtt, E, 11/15/04.

60                I was very interested in…”: Ben Burtt, AI, 10/28/04.

60                It was just a hobby…”: Ibid.

60                [A week after meeting]: Web: usc alum website “Inmotion”

60                [Kurtz got Burtt a Nagra tape recorder]: http://www.filmsound.org/starwars/burtt-interview.htm

60                I was really sort of a PA…”: Ben Burtt, AI, 10/28/04.

60                  In my first discussion with George…”: http://www.filmsound.org/starwars/ -- from Film Sound Today.

61                [Trumbull became one]: Greenwald, Jeff, Wired, Trumbull’s Vision, Jan 1997.

63                [When the roll-up doors]: Smith, Thomas G. Industrial Light & Magic: The Art of Special Effects. Ballantine Books, New York, 1986, p13.

64                Kubrick was a nut…”: Gary Kurtz, AI, 3/14/05.

64                George is a story teller…”: Richard Edlund, AI, 3/14/05.

65                We walked into the room…”: Ibid.

67                George thought that…”: Larry Cuba, AI, 10/26/04.

67                [Star Wars was still]: Ibid.

67                R2 needs a voice…”: Edwards, Gavin. “The Cult of Darth Vader,” Rolling Stone, June 2, 2005.

67                It was clear he was…”: Gary Kurtz, AI, 3/14/05.

67                when I was hired…”: Ben Burtt, AI, 10/28/04.

67                a savage looking creature…”: Lucas, George. Star Wars script, p44.

69                [Burtt] came up with this…”: Edwards, Gavin. “The Cult of Darth Vader,” Rolling Stone, June 2, 2005.

70                You have bits and fragments…”: http://www.filmsound.org/starwars/

70                [Sound Effects]: Trivia from IMDB. Ben Burt corrected via email, 11/23/04.

71                The studio was stressing out…”: Richard Edlund, AI, 3/14/05.

71                The opening shot of Star Wars…”: Gary Kurtz, AI, 3/14/05.

71                Optical printing was…”: Richard Edlund, AI, 3/14/05/.

72                I couldn’t get the computer…”: Larry Cuba, AI, 10/26/04.

72                These inventions were utterly…”: Richard Edlund, AI, 3/14/05/.

72                I felt like, if we were really lucky…”: Ben Burtt, web: USC interview.

73                At that point…”: Thomas Brown, E, 11/2/04, paraphrasing Jerry Jeffress.

 

Chapter 5: The Rebirth of Lucasfilm

75                When one man…”: http://www.cousteau.org/en/heritage/captain/interviews.php (from “Diving for Sunken Treasure”); http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/j/jacques_yves_cousteau.html

75                [Soon they were joined by George’s pals]: Smith, Jim. George Lucas. Virgin Books, London, 2003, p80.

75                We’d sit around and wait...”: Indiana Jones documentary;

75                [hypertension and exhaustion]: Smith, Jim. George Lucas. Virgin Books, London, 2003, p67.

76                [two months]: Ibid., p.79

76                [Poster]: People, July 18, 1977.

76                Galactica kept the team…”: Richard Edlund, AI, 3/14/05.

78                I had visions of R2-D2 mugs...”: “The Empire Strikes Back and So Does Filmmaker George Lucas with his Sequel to Star Wars,” Rolling Stone, June 12, 1980.

76                I don’t want to be a businessman…”: “The Empire Strikes Back and So Does Filmmaker George Lucas with his Sequel to Star Wars,” Rolling Stone, June 12, 1980.

78               I prefer playing with camera film...”: Clouzot, Claire. “The Morning of the Magician: George Lucas and Star Wars,” Ercan, Sept. 15, 1977 (Translated from French by Alisa Belanger).

79                L.A. is where they make deals...”: “The Empire Strikes Back and So Does Filmmaker George Lucas with his Sequel to Star Wars,” Rolling Stone, June 12, 1980.

79                Do you want to meet George Lucas?”: Charlie Webber, AI, 3/12/04.

80                We both like the Victorian style of architecture…”: Woods, Lynn. “The Skywalker Ranch and Skywalker Art Glass Studio,” The American Art Glass Quarterly, Fall 1982.

80                I had to direct 500 people on Star Wars…”: Clouzot, Claire. “The Morning of the Magician: George Lucas and Star Wars,” Ercan, Sept. 15, 1977 (Translated from French by Alisa Belanger).

81                There will be a main building...”: “The Empire Strikes Back and So Does Filmmaker George Lucas with his Sequel to Star Wars,” Rolling Stone, June 12, 1980.

81                It was really an extraordinary dream...”: Pollock, Dale. Skywalking: The Life and Films of George Lucas. Da Capo Press, New York, 1999, p208.

82                Whenever George was in the cutting room…”: Duwayne Dunham, AI, 5/06/05.

82                [plaster dust falling] LFL Yearbook 1987

83                We were all very undercover...”: Richard Edlund, AI, 3/14/05/.

84                What can we do that makes this whole thing easier?”: Gary Kurtz, AI, 3/14/05.

86                We ordered some precision optical glass...”: Gary Demos, AI.

87                There were some problems...”: “The Empire Strikes Back and So Does Filmmaker George Lucas with his Sequel to Star Wars,” Rolling Stone, June 12, 1980.

87                It was one of those odd things…”: Gary Kurtz, AI, 3/14/05.

89                Would I be interested in working for George Lucas?”: Story recounted by Jim Kessler. Jim Kessler, AI, 3/8/04

91                Hey, Marin County is a great place to live…” “Truth be told...”: Story recounted by Ralph Guggenheim. Ralph Guggenheim, AI, 6/12/02

 

Chapter 6: The Godfather of Electronic Cinema

93                bimonthlies.” Clark Higgins, AI, 6/19/02

93                We bought a couple of those very first Beta machines…” : “Conversation with Francis,” Videography, Sept. 1982.

93                Make a better telephone...”: Cowie, Peter. Coppola. Andre Deutsch Ltd, London, 1989, p3.

94                [video editing suite]: Savage, Golda. “Coppola’s Electronic Cinema Process,” Millimeter, Oct. 1981.

94                This is a crude system…”: The Making of Star Wars: Revenge of the Sith, by J.W. Rinzler (Random House, 2005)

96                I agreed to shoot The Party...”: Les Blank. AI, 8/23/04.

96                [truck pulled inside]: Clark Higgins, AI, 8/19/04.

97                Francis wanted us to take the journey up river with Kurtz…”: Mickey Hart, AI, 3/17/05.

97                Is there anything you can do to help?”: Clark Higgins, AI, 8/19/04.

 

Chapter 7: The Visionary of Long Island

104            I wanted to create...”: Alexander Schure, AI, 3/09/05.

104            Sawyers went wild about this stuff…”: Howard Spielman, AI, 9/9/04.

105            Alex was pretty impressed...”: Pete Ferentinos, AI, 3/24/05

107            A display connected…”: http://www.cc.gatech.edu/classes/cs6751_97_fall/projects/abowd_team/ivan/ivan.html

110            The best way to predict…”: http://www.smalltalk.org/alankay.html

113            Money has a way of changing people’s…”: Alvy Ray Smith. "Digital Paint Systems: An Anecdotal and Historical Overview," IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 23,  no. 2,  pp. 4-30,  April-June,  2001.

 

Chapter 8: The Train Wreck

116            [The problem was that]: Perry. Tekla. S. “And the Oscar Goes to….” IEEE Spectrum, April 2001 Volume 38, No. 4, www.spectrum.ieee.org/careers/careerstemplate.jsp?ArticleId=p040101

116            [significantly more time]: Ibid.

116            [Surfaces were solid colors]: Ibid.

117            [After an image was rendered]: Alvy Ray Smith notes 11/9/04

117            I realized that since I…”: Ed Catmull history doc, E, 11/04

117            [He called this]: E, Ed Catmull 11/13/04

117            Z-buffer.”: Perry. Tekla. S. “And the Oscar Goes to….” IEEE Spectrum, April 2001 Volume 38, No. 4, www.spectrum.ieee.org/careers/careerstemplate.jsp?ArticleId=p040101

119            The moment I first…”: Tom Brown, E, 11/2/04.

120            It was serial jamming…”: Alvy Ray Smith, notes, 11/9/04.

120            We continued the nightly…”: Alvy Ray Smith, notes, 11/9/04.

122            If I were you guys…”: David DiFransesco, AI, 3/19/04.

129            It was almost…”: Alvy Ray Smith, E, 5/5/05.

130            [They never completed…]: Howard Spielman, AI, 9/9/04; also in notes from Alvy Ray Smith.

130            “As for me…”: Ed Catmull, E, 12/22/04.

 

Chapter 9: Escape from New York

132            The numbers were simply…”: Ed Catmull, E, 10/8/04.

133            all very expensive…”: Rodney Stock, AI, 10/25/04.

133            [Their response to the problems]: Ibid.

134            Okay…”: Tom Porter, AI, 3/19/04.

134            We were trying to invent…”: Ed Catmull, E, 10/8/04.

135            I hoped they’d consider me…”: Ralph Guggenheim, E, 12/27/04.

137            You take every aspect…”: Gary Demos, AI, 9/10/04.

139            It was one of those gorgeous…”: Alvy Ray Smith, AI, 6/11/02.

139            George is a practical filmmaker…”: Ed Catmull’s history (draft) 9/19/95.

141            We wanted to make…”: Alvy Ray Smith, E, 5/23/05.

 

Chapter 10: Inside Wonkaland

145            First, you can’t always tell…”: Ed Catmull, E, 10/8/04.

145            I always thought it was cool…”: Ed Catmull, E, 12/22/04.

146            I wanted to be an architect…”: O’Quinn, Kerry; Starlog, 1981 (from George Lucas: Interviews, p132)

149            Francis was constantly burdened…”: Thomas Brown, AI, 6/21/02.

149            Coppola has a natural…”: Haller, Scot. “Francis Coppola’s Biggest Gamble,” Saturday Review, July 1981.

150            Using the power I had because…”: Champlin, Charles. George Lucas—The Creative Impulse. Harry N. Abrams Inc., USA, 1992, pg 76.

150            [It would serve as an…]: Cowie, Peter. Coppola. Andre Deutsch Ltd, London, 1989, p144.

151            [Lucas and Catmull had agreed…]: George Lucas, AI, 4/28/04.

151            may or may not…”: Ibid.

151            [About what they thought…]: “The Empire Strikes Back and So Does Filmmaker George Lucas with his Sequel to Star Wars,” Rolling Stone, June 12, 1980.

153            I think the feeling was…”: Susan Anderson Catmull, AI, 9/21/04.

153            I knew I wanted to be more…”: Susan Anderson Catmull, AI, 9/21/04.

153            I’ve painted this damn city…”: Zoetrope Studios. “Electronic Imagery Conference,” Transcription, 1980, p42.

156            I don’t want to have…”: Rob Lay, AI, n.d. 1985.

157            [At a time when consumers…]: Rubin, Michael. Nonlinear v4—A Field Guide to Digital Video and Film Editing. Triad, Florida, 2000, p48.

157            I’ve been looking at…”: Ralph Guggenheim, AI, 8/20/04.

158            [Lucasfilm would send them…]: Ralph Guggenheim, LFL History Project, Interview by Pamela Glintenkamp, 1/30/02.

159            [An extraordinary quantity…]: Ralph Guggenheim, AI, 8/20/04.

159            We had to jump around…”: Ralph Guggenheim, LFL History Project, Interview by Pamela Glintenkamp, 1/30/02.

159            and I always hoped people…”: Haller, Scot. “Francis Coppola’s Biggest Gamble,” Saturday Review, July 1981.

160            While our current system had…”: “The Brave New World of HDTV,” Broadcasting, Feb. 1, 1982.

161            [Dating back to the silent movie days…]: Zoetrope Studios. “Electronic Imagery Conference,” Transcription, 1980, p9. also TB interview

161            Why don’t you come up and see…”: http://www.hollywoodcenter.com/history/story_130.php

 

Chapter 11: Flying Free

163            [The film had performed spectacularly…]: Cowie, Peter. Coppola. Andre Deutsch Ltd, London, 1989, p 144.

164            It involves an individual losing…”: Zoetrope Studios. “Electronic Imagery Conference,” Transcription, 1980.

164            He went for hours and hours talking…”: Alvy Ray Smith, E, 8/21/04.

166            But I was never uncertain…”: Alvy Ray Smith, E, 8/21/04.

168            Where the Alto was built…”: Andy Bechtolsheim, AI, 10/28/04.

168            No one saw the opportunity…”: Ibid.

170            Lucasfilm was the ideal customer…”: Ibid.

170            [He settled on his son Louis…]: Notes from Alvy Ray Smith, 11/11/04

170            His real love had been tennis…”: Tom Duff, AI, 8/18/04.

171            While I did want people to join me…”: Ed Catmull, E, 12/29/04.

171            I was in discussions about a job…”: Bill Reeves, AI, 3/19/04.

172            [Vector graphics were drawn in…]: Alvy Ray Smith, E, 8/21/04.

172            What would you rather have…”: Andy van Dam, AI, 5/26/04.

172            [But no one really imagined how fast the price…]: http://www.intel.com/research/silicon/mooreslaw.htm

173            [Carpenter would go to work early…]: Rachel Carpenter, AI, 9/14/04.

174            I threw the problem back into my subconscious…”: Perry. Tekla. S. “And the Oscar Goes to….” IEEE Spectrum, April 2001 Volume 38, No. 4, www.spectrum.ieee.org/careers/careerstemplate.jsp?ArticleId=p040101

174            It was totally stunning…”: Loren Carpenter, AI, 3/18/04.

175            But who was I, some programmer at Boeing…”: Perry. Tekla. S. “And the Oscar Goes to….” IEEE Spectrum, April 2001 Volume 38, No. 4, www.spectrum.ieee.org/careers/careerstemplate.jsp?ArticleId=p040101

175            I wanted to see my…”: Loren Carpenter, AI, 3/18/04.

175            I had to make a movie…”: Ibid.

177            It was pure sex appeal…”: Tom Porter, AI, 3/19/04.

 

Chapter 12: The Silverfish

179            “Francis would never ask…”: Clark Higgins, AI.

179            “After Apocalypse…”: Thomas Brown, AI, 12/12/04.

182            “You have a reputation…”: Thomas Brown, AI, 6/21/02.

182            “Zoltan…”: Zoetrope Studios. “Electronic Imagery Conference,” Transcription, 1980, p14.

182            “I was surrounded by the best special…”: Thomas Brown, E, 10/15/04.

182            “It was natural that there…”: Thomas Brown, AI, 6/21/02..

183            [Brooksfilms had a deal with Zoetrope…]: Ibid.

183            “From our first meetings…”: Savage, Golda. “Coppola’s Electronic Cinema Process,” Millimeter, Oct. 1981.

184            “It’s like I’m at a poker table…”: Haller, Scot. “Francis Coppola’s Biggest Gamble,” Saturday Review, July 1981.

185            “We went around asking companies…”: “Francis Coppola’s One From the Heart,” American Premiere, Feb. 1982.

185            “There’s no such thing as…”: Thomas Brown, AI, 12/12/04.

186            “The first thing we all did…”: Thomas Brown, AI, 6/21/02.

186            [Francis asked Dean Tavoularis—the art director…]: Ibid.

186            “It was a next-generation system…”: Thomas Brown, AI, 12/12/04.

186            [He agreed that the blisteringly fast search…]: “Conversation with Francis,” Videography, Sept. 1982.

187            “The whole idea…”: Savage, Golda. “Coppola’s Electronic Cinema Process,” Millimeter, Oct. 1981.

187            “Any time a new tool is created…”: Thomas Brown, E, 1/8/05.

187            “The intense reaction of this volatile…”: Savage, Golda. “Coppola’s Electronic Cinema Process,” Millimeter, Oct. 1981.

 

Chapter 13: Sound and Vision

189            “’Never before in history…’”: “Sound Doctrine: An Interview with Walter Murch” by Michael Jarrett, Film Quarterly, Spring 2000

190            “I only discovered film needed…“: Ondaatje, Michael. The Conversations — Walter Murch and the Art of Editing Film. Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 2002, p11.

190            “an early, technically primitive…”: Ibid., p7.

190            [Forbidden Planet]: http://sfstation.members.easyspace.com/fbessay.htm

                        http://www.moviediva.com/MD_root/reviewpages/MDForbiddenPlanet.htm

192            “They were jumping out…”: From Vintage Synthesizers, (Backbeat Books) by Bob Moog and Connor Freff Cochran (and reprinted on the web - http://www.synthmuseum.com/moog/ - At Amazon-http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0879306033/ref=ase_synthmuseumcom/102-9311989-3816147?v=glance&s=books

192            [When Carlos’ album Switched on Bach…]: http://www.intuitivemusic.com/tguidewendycarlos.html says 1967

192            [Switched on Bach] : http://www.wendycarlos.com/photos.html

194            “Every time we added up what you’d have…”: Andy Moorer, LFL History Project, Interview by Pamela Glintenkamp, 1/22/02.

195            “and I thought, that's all you have to do…”: http://www.tdolby.com/index_frameset.html

195            [The DX-7 went on to sell more than]: Web history of computer music www.csounds.com

196            “If you’re here for what I think you’re here…”: Andy Moorer, LFL History Project, Interview by Pamela Glintenkamp, 1/22/02.

197            [An old laundromat, it was located on Tunstead Avenue, across…]: Ibid.

199            “I didn’t ask for that role…”: Jim Kessler, E, 12/6/04.

199            “These were like two different worlds in the same environment…”: David DiFrancesco, AI, 6/19/04.

201            “To make us happy…”: Alvy Ray Smith, notes, 12/2/04.

202            [Nothing about making animated movies…]: Andy Moorer AI, 6/24/02.

202            [It wasn’t in his charter, but Ed…]: Tom Porter, AI, 3/19/04.

203            “He explained it to me in a very elementary but very understandable way…”: Jim Kessler, AI 3/8/04.

203            “But when that happens, when we can effectively make water…”: Jim Kessler, AI, 3/8/04; recalling a conversation with Smith.

203            “You know, we’re starting to be able to simulate actors…”: Gary Demos, AI, 9/10/04.

209            [History of BASIC]: http://www.linuxfocus.org/English/January2003/article277.shtml

209            [Microcomputer background]

                        http://www-db.stanford.edu/pub/voy/museum/pictures/display/4-5-apple.htm

http://www-db.stanford.edu/pub/voy/museum/galaxy.html

Chapter 14: Obnoxio

213            [As soon as Weber finished reading the note…]: Ira Friedman, http://www.brmovie.com/Magazine/Ira_Friedman.htm

213            “Shock waves ran through the place…”: Ibid.

213            “It’s a bit of a misnomer being CEO of Lucasfilm…”: Robert Greber, AI, 5/14/04.

214            “Mostly because we needed more space …”: Paraphrased from Jim Kessler, AI 24AB line 220.

215            “It could be done for a lot less money up here…”: Jim Kessler, AI, 4/7/04.

216            “Bring a new level of quality to film…”: Tom Holman, AI, 11/22/04.

217            “Alvy just didn’t want to be away from the action…”: Susan Anderson Catmull, AI, 9/21/04.

217            [At the outset, it was decided that once the Ranch…]: Woods, Lynn. “The Skywalker Ranch and Skywalker Art Glass Studio,” The American Art Glass Quarterly, Fall 1982.

218            “I joined Lucasfilm in November and Empire…”: Susan Anderson Catmull, AI, 9/21/04.

219            “Clark had always been interested in extra-terrestrials…”: Thomas Brown, AI 6/21/02.

220            “Go do it…”: Clark Higgins, AI, 6/19/02.

220            “Working for Francis was very dynamic…”: Clark Higgins, AI, 6/19/02.

220            “We couldn’t build the systems fast enough…”: Ibid.

220            “We were removed from production…”: Ibid.

220            “I was blown away by what little budget…”: Ibid.

221            “I don’t believe we had second-rate equipment…”: Ralph Guggenheim, E, 1/2/05.

222            “In short, they needed computers and software…”: Jim Kessler, AI (paraphrased), 3/8/04.

222            “He thought this overseeing business was pretty…”: Champlin, Charles. George Lucas—The Creative Impulse. Harry N. Abrams Inc., USA, 1992, p88.

223            “Lucas made it possible to make the film with no interference…”: Ibid.

223            [“state-of-the art” that Lucas wanted…]: Tom Holman, E, 11/20/04

227            “And that really changed the deal for us…”: Nick England, AI, 11/29/04.

227            “Somewhere along the line…”: Ibid.

228            “Alvy—if nothing else—is prolific…”: Rodney Stock, AI, 10/25/04.

228            [Alvy was certain it needed to be catchy…]: Loren Carpenter, AI, 3/18/04.

229            “You know, ‘ar’ is another Spanish verb…”: Alvy Ray Smith, AI 6/11/02.

230      “Once you could do the image manipulations required…”: Ralph Guggenheim, LFL History Project, Interview by Pamela Glintenkamp, 1/30/02. (edited via E)

 

Chapter 15: Double Suicide

232            [There was no sound on the print…]: Jim Kessler, AI, 4/7/04.

232            [After only one viewing, more than half the prints showed visible scars…]: Lucasfilm Ltd. “TAP Presentation,” 1985.

232            “You make all these great sounds…”: Jim Kessler, AI, 3/8/04.

233            “It’ll be great for the industry. We can start…”: Jim Kessler, AI, 4/7/04.

233            “They’re symbiotic…it’s a love-hate relationship…”: Ibid.

234            “It turns out to be the perfect model…”: Perry. Tekla. S. “And the Oscar Goes to….” IEEE Spectrum, April 2001 Volume 38, No. 4, www.spectrum.ieee.org/careers/careerstemplate.jsp?ArticleId=p040101

234            “’Alvy,’” he said, “’you should look at this guy…’”: Alvy Ray Smith, AI, paraphrasing Blinn.

234            “There are about a dozen great computer graphics people…”: http://accad.osu.edu/~waynec/history/tree/jpl.html

234            “I had no idea this was coming…”: Rob Cook, AI, 9/8/04.

235            “It made sense…”: Bill Reeves, E, 11/28/04.

235            “I sit, I view the screen, I talk to the screen…”: “Francis Coppola’s One From the Heart,” American Premiere, Feb. 1982.

236            “I want to make a very stylized love…”: Kilday, Gregg. “Francis Ford Coppola Forges a Bold New Moviemaking Experiment Around Video,” Home Video, May 1981.

236            “state-of-the-art synthesis of all the new technology…”: Ibid.

236            “At the end of each week we generally had a wrap party…”: Thomas Brown, AI, 6/21/02.

236            “If we ever had a lot of money…”: Haller, Scot. “Francis Coppola’s Biggest Gamble,” Saturday Review, July 1981.

237            “Seeing them play with one another…”: Alvy Ray Smith, E, 8/21/04.

237            “People ask me if all this technology…”: “Francis Coppola’s One From the Heart,” American Premiere, Feb. 1982.

238            “Francis gave this dazzling performance…”: Thomas Brown, AI, 12/11/04.

239            “One of the reasons the sets were so nice…”: Ibid.

239            [They watched, mortified and scribbling notes…]: Rick McCallum, AI, 6/3/05.

240            “It was like putting them into real world conditions…”: Thomas Brown, AI, 12/12/04.

240            “We’re an end-user…”: “The Brave New World of HDTV,” Broadcasting, Feb. 1, 1982.

240            [He couldn’t imagine working in a medium that he couldn’t hold up]: Hanauer, Gary. “The New Movie Makers—after the advent of computers, movies may never be the same,” Northwest Orient Passages, Nov. 1982.

240            “The old ways must die away and give way to new life…”: “The Brave New World of HDTV,” Broadcasting, Feb. 1, 1982.

 

Chapter 16: One thousand, six hundred and twenty-one frames

241            “We kept waiting for George to come around…”: Alvy Ray Smith, LFL History Project, Interview by Pamela Glintenkamp, 1/23/02.

241            “We got treated as a sideshow…”: Tom Porter, AI, 3/19/04.

243            We’re married and work together; other people can be married…”: Susan Anderson Catmull, AI, 9/21/04.

246            “If you simulate your physics…”: Alvy Ray Smith, E, 11/16/04.

246            “Okay. I’m going to go back and put some…”: Alvy Ray Smith, LFL History Project, Interview by Pamela Glintenkamp, 1/23/02.

247            “This is a sixty-second commercial to George…”: Alvy Ray Smith, email notes 11.04.

248            “Bill was dealing with the 3-D particles…”: Tom Porter, E, 7/27/04.

249            “Ah, take that! Take that…”: Rob Cook, AI, 9/8/04.

250            “It was really exciting…”: Pat Cole, AI, 12/20/04.

250            “extinct before it was even hatched…”: Harter press release NAB 1984.

250            [For the effects teams it was an absolute godsend…]: Ralph Guggenheim, LFL History Project, Interview by Pamela Glintenkamp, 1/30/02.

254            “An evil outfit called the Murkworks, led by a devilish character called…”: Champlin, Charles. George Lucas—The Creative Impulse. Harry N. Abrams Inc., USA, 1992, p88.

254            “Let us do the mix…”: Jim Kessler, AI, 4/7/04.

255            “They wanted that sound in their new facilities…”: Tom Holman, notes, 11/20/04.

 

Chapter 17: Queen’s Rules

259            “George was clearly proud to bring his buddies by…”: Tom Porter, AI, 3/19/04.

259            “We were all terribly excited…”: Alvy Ray Singer, E, 9/5/04.

261            “We were so disconnected from George it was ridiculous…”: Clark Higgins, AI, 6/19/02.

261            “It seemed to me that the company was carefully designed to protect…”: Malcolm Blanchard, AI, 5/4/04.

262            “When SUN got funded in February 1982…”: Andy Bechtolsheim, AI, 10/28/04.

265            “After about two hours of this, I’m thinking there…”: Malcolm Blanchard, AI, 5/4/04.

265            [By the summer of 1982]: John Snell, AI, 11/19/04.

267            “I thought of it as a real-time interface…”: Ibid.

268            “People were working way too much…”: Bob Greber, AI, 5/14/04.

268            “They worked very peculiar hours and I think…”: Ibid.

268            [George heard Annie’s scratch track each time he reviewed the scene]: IMDB.

269            “I went over to ILM and sat…”: Susan Anderson Catmull, AI, 9/21/04.

271            TRON signals the emergence of the Walt Disney organization…”: Cinefx, April 1982.

271            [TRON came out July 9, 1982]: Alvy Ray Smith, E, 9/4/04.

271            “The studios didn’t pay any attention to TRON because they only pay attention…”: Ed Catmull, E, 12/22/04.

273            “I think they wanted to show off…”: Bob Doris, AI, 9/30/04.

273            [Bob and Ed agreed that in spite of Digital Productions…]: Ibid.

273            “We felt getting a Cray computer would blow…”: Ed Catmull, E., 5/27/05.

274            “We had a hell of a time with names…”: Alvy Ray Smith, AI, 6/11/02.

275            “It seemed sort of crazy at the time…”: Perry. Tekla. S. “And the Oscar Goes to….” IEEE Spectrum, April 2001 Volume 38, No. 4, www.spectrum.ieee.org/careers/careerstemplate.jsp?ArticleId=p040101

277            “There was no way we could get control in real time moving…”: Tom Duff, AI, 8/18/04.

278            “The effect wasn’t so groundbreaking…”: Tom Duff, AI, 8/18/04.

278            [They had just finished doing 45 shots for Spielberg’s E.T and Poltergeist]: 1983 Lucasfilm yearbook.

279            “You don’t turn a switch…”: Bob Doris, AI, 10/22/04.

279            “We decided to provide a service for every theater showing Jedi…”: Director of TAP 6/84.

279            “We wanted the film to be seen in the way it was intended to be seen…“: Box Office, June. 1984.

280            [These included Indy II]:  5/25/84.

280            [Star Trek III]: 6/1/84.

280            “I remember driving to take George water skiing…”: Jim Kessler, AI, 4/7/04.

280            [A new stereo set-up might run $15,000]: Box Office, February, 1984.

280            [Contrary to the public’s perception, the problem wasn’t that the volume…]: Jones, Bill. “Thanks to George Lucas, the force is with movie dialogue,” The Phoenix Gazette, May 29, 1984.

281            “People have been asking the question for years: what does THX stand for…”: Tom Holman, E notes, 11/20/04.

281            [That’s what THX needed…]: Jim Kessler, AI, 3/8/04.

281            “I didn’t dare show anyone anything until it was finished…”: Jim Kessler, E, 12/6/04.

281            “It’s gotta swirl around and it should be like this really big…”: Jim Kessler, AI, 3/8/04

281            “We need a theme for this…something really really big…”: Andy Moorer, LFL History Project, Interview by Pamela Glintenkamp, 1/22/02.

284            “That’s a lot of multiple exposures, and if you make a mistake, you have to start over…”: Lehrman, Paul. “Digicon 83,” Creative Computing, April 1984.

285            “Either you are a genius…”: Andy Moorer, E., 10/10/04.

286            “Steven and I had discussed Billy Meier at the 1982 Christmas party…”: Clark Higgins, E, 12/30/04.

287            [Soon Clark got called into Ed Catmull’s office. Bob Doris was there. So was Ralph ]: Clark Higgins, AI, 6/19/02.

287            “It’s about time.”: Ed Catmull, AI, 3/12/04.

 

Chapter 18: A Hole in the Desert

291            “We treated programmers like mini-gods…”: Dolan, Mike. “Behind the Screens: An insider’s oral history of the videogame, from the birth of the Brown Box to the arrival of Xbox”; Wired, May 2001. www.wired.com/wired/archive/9.05/history.html.

292            [Then from MCA]: Video Business, July 1982.

292            “It wasn’t a game company…”: Manny Gerard, AI, 8/13/04.

292            “I’ve seen the future and it’s…”: Ibid.

292            “There’d be no way to motivate them…”: Ibid.

292            “losing a toe in an industrial accident…”: http://www.brainyencyclopedia.com/encyclopedia/c/ch/channel_f.html

293            “It’s over for the VCS…”: Bushnell conversation recalled by Manny Gerard, AI, 8/13/04.

293            “Look, the guy I bought this company from just told me…”: Ross conversation recalled by Manny Gerard, Ibid.

293            ’Ray,’” explained Gerard…”: Ibid.

293            “Nolan, you’re out of here…”: Dolan, Mike. “Behind the Screens: An insider’s oral history of the videogame, from the birth of the Brown Box to the arrival of Xbox”; Wired, May 2001. www.wired.com/wired/archive/9.05/history.html

294            “high-strung prima donnas…”: All over the web: http://www.heartbone.com/comphist/Atari.htm AND http://www.atariage.com/trivia_list.php et al.

294            [There, the game was so popular that entire arcades…]: http://www.classicgaming.cc/classics/spaceinvaders/history.php

295            [Kay was given an unlimited budget to follow two directives…]: Alan Kay quote in Business Week, 9/13/82

296            “From $75 million, to $432 million, to a billion-one…”: Manny Gerard, AI, 8/13/04.

296            [They ate together in a corporate dining room...]: Bob Doris, AI, 6/14/02.

296            “I don’t give a shit who you are…”: Manny Gerard, AI, 8/13/04.

296            [In time there were special projects all over the place…]: Doug Crockford, AI, 9/25/04.

296            “’At that time,’ recalled Atari researcher Doug Crockford…”: Ibid.

297            “These guys have terrific technology…”: Manny Gerard, AI, 8/13/04.

297            [Ultimately, Lucas conceded, as long as Atari funded the project…]:  Bob Doris, AI, 6/14/02.

298            “a precedent-shattering master toy license…”: Marc Peevers, VP Licensing, Fox (in) Baxter, John. George Lucas—A Biography. Harper Collins, London, 1999.

299            “Lucasfilm is a highly talented, creative bunch…”: Landro, Laura. “Atari and Lucasfilm Plan Joint Venture in Video Products,” Wall Street Journal, June 7, 1982.

299            “dramatically affect the evolution of the electronic entertainment industry…”: San Francisco Examiner, 6/8/82.

299            “I was really impressed…”: Doug Crockford, AI, 9/25/04.

299            [Within a year he had built a range of unusual games…]: Schrage, Michael. “Raiders Meets Invaders,” American Film, Sept. 1982.

300            “My approach to programming is intuitive…”: Ibid.

301            “Eventually I said yes…”: Peter Langston, AI, 6/20/02.

301            [American Film magazine referred to him as a “jazz” programme…]: Schrage, Michael. “Raiders Meets Invaders,” American Film, Sept. 1982.

301            “’That magic,’” he said later…”: Langston, Peter. “The Way it Should Be Done,” Unix Review, June 1985..

301            [He had a fascination as well for the interface between people and machines…]: Marin Independent Journal, 8/31/04.

302            “I play at the end of every day to unwind…”: Graham, Jefferson. “All Time Attendance Records at Consumer Electronics Show,” The Hollywood Reporter, June 10, 1982.

302            “History will show that the five breakthrough developments of 20th century electronics…”: Ibid.

304            “It’s funny, often the people I went after—if they had any sort of…”: Peter Langston, AI, 6/20/02.

305            “We didn’t want the games guys messing around…”: Bob Doris, AI, 6/14/02.

307            “Then it becomes a social interaction—the computer is a neutral…”: The Lucasfilm Interview. http://www.zzap64.co.uk/zzap11/lucas_part2.html

307            “It’s the age-old problem…”: David Levine, AI, 7/16/04.

307            “I was curious to see how much of a fractal I could get…”: Loren Carpenter, AI,

7/16/04.

309            [A distant second to Atari, they represented 15 percent of the market…]: Graham, Jefferson. “New Entries in Video Market Stress Arcade-style Quality,” The Hollywood Reporter, Aug. 23, 1982.

310            “a physics lab is nothing more than a simulation…”: http://www.atarimagazines.com/v4n8/Lucasfilm.html (Antic, Vol. 4 No. 8 Dec 1985 “New Lucasfilm Games”.

310            “boot beep”: www.folklore.org/StoryView.py?project=Macintosh&story=Boot_Beep.txt&sortOrder=Sort%20by%20Date&detail=medium

310            “[When I heard] that George Lucas was starting a game division…that was it.”: Charlie Kelner, http://www.atarimagazines.com/v4n8/Lucasfilm.html (Antic, Vol. 4 No. 8 Dec 1985 “New Lucasfilm Games”.

311            “He wanted some kind of fancified alien craft…”: David Levine, AI, 7/16/04.

312            [And like most interactions between George and his troops, he was gone almost as quickly as he had arrived…]: David Fox, AI, 6/30/04.

312            “One game reviewer, an eminent jazz player, said the score sounded…”: http://www.atarimagazines.com/v3n4/lucasfilm.html (Antic, Vol 3, No. 4 August 1984) Lucasfilm & Atari, Creative Partners by Michael Ciraolo.

312            “Peter’s primary focus is on fun…”: David Levine, AI, 7/16/04.

313            [Ray Kassar (still onboard in spite of securities allegations)…]: http://www.geocities.com/~irata/background.html (“Planet Irata”).

313            “I asked George to come look at the options before the meeting…”: Bob Doris, AI, 6/14/02.

ADDITIONAL WEB LINKS (with varying degrees of relevance):

http://www.commodore.ca/history/company/chronology_portcommodore.htm

http://www.steverd.com/cool/SECRETS.TXT

http://www.cyberroach.com/analog/an19/dark_noon.htm

http://www.system16.com/atari/history.html

http://www.snopes.com/business/market/atari.asp#add

http://www.atarimagazines.com/hi-res/v1n1/atarihistory.php

http://www.geocities.com/~irata/background.html

 

Chapter 19: Non-Stop Coffee Pots

315            [The theater chain General Cinema also joined the club, upgrading three theaters with THX.]: Tom Holman, notes, 11/20/04.

317            “They were a team. If he was black she was white…”: Jim Kessler, AI, 3/8/04.

317            “I think Ed’s greatest fear…”: Bob Doris, AI, 6/14/02.

319            [He gave feedback on the prototypes without being asked…]: Clark Higgins, AI 6/14/02.

320            “Steve brought a lot of expertise in the day-to-day…”: Ralph Guggenheim, E, 1/3/05.

320            “Well, hate is a strong word…”: Duwayne Dunham, AI, 5/6/05.

321            “Being incapacitated with post-surgical pain and learning…”: Ralph Guggenheim, E, 1/3/05.

323            “We needed to put film in the hands of the people…”: Rob Lay, AI, 6/18/02.

323            “there was definitely an editing problem. I had been making films all along…”: Ibid.

323            “We needed maximum power, so we were looking at all…”: Ibid.

324            “There was always huge pressure to get product released…”: Ibid.

324            “My interest was in being closer to the blending of filmmaker and machine…”: Ibid.

327            “How do you do a sound overlap…”: Bob Dalva, AI, 6/22/05.

328            “The secretaries and the programmers were…”: Rob Lay, AI, 1/3/05.

328            “When the damn machine would crash…”: Ibid.

330            “we need some kick-ass…”: Steve Schwartz, AI, 8/29/04.

331            “You couldn’t ask for a better guy…”: Ibid.

331            “You know, I really just want to point at the…”: Rob Lay, AI, n.d.

 

Chapter 20: The Aren’t the Droids You’re Looking For

335            “Even more important…is the way complex systems seem to strike a balance between the need for order and the imperative to change…”: [The Lost World, by Michael Crichton; Alfred A. Knopf, a division of Random House, Inc. copyright 1995]

335            “The only problem was that we…”: Robert Greber, AI, 5/14/04.

336            “George looked at the products the way…”: Paraphrased from Bob Doris, AI, 3/12/04.

338            “People weren’t even looking at the editing…”: Chet Schuler, AI, 10/20/04.

340            “Francis always said a movie is 65 percent…”: Clark Higgins, AI, 6/19/02.

341            “I told Walter I didn’t want to be officially involved…”: Champlin, Charles. George Lucas—The Creative Impulse. Harry N. Abrams Inc., USA, 1992, p 112.

341            “There was always a political earthquake…”: Rob Lay, voicemail.

 

Chapter 21: My Breakfast with Andre

347            “[Our] first couple of visits were…”: Alvy Ray Smith, E, 4/11/05.

348            “One of the questions that’s never been answered…”: Charles Solomon, AI, 8/24/04.

348            “I loved cartoons. I would get up at the crack…”: http://www.awn.com/mag/issue3.8/3.8pages/3.8lyonslasseter

349            “I was always feeling that animation had reached a plateau…”: Ibid. Reiterated John Lasseter, AI, 9/8/04.

349            [Still, if Disney thought the shot was important enough…]: Alvy Ray Smith, E, 10/1/04.

351            “Alvy was ready to take on the world…”: Tom Porter, E notes, 10/1/04.

352            “’Without motion blur,’ said Catmull…”: Ed Catmull, E, 5/27/05.

352            “If we’re going to do cinema-quality…”: Rob Cook, AI, 9/8/04.

353            “It was the conventional wisdom that point sampling…”: Ibid.

353            “I found the competition invigorating…”; Ed Catmull, E, 5/27/05.

353            “’I walked by those guys,’ said Ben Burtt…”: Ben Burtt, AI, 10/28/04.

354            “I wasn’t a PhD, like most of these guys…”: Rodney Stock, AI, 10/25/04.

357            “We probably should have called it something different…”: Rob Cook, AI, 9/8/04.

357            [Earlier, they had written an animation program…]: Ed Catmull, LFL History Project, Interview by Pamela Glintenkamp, 1/24/02.

357            “We wanted to test our system…”: Ibid.

358            “I’m in heaven…”: Alvy Ray Smith, AI, 6/11/02.

359            “I couldn’t believe that this movie, almost a comic strip…”: John Lasseter, AI, 9/08/04.

364            “Lasseter was down the hall from me…”: Ben Burtt, AI, 10/28/04.

366            “I want the group to do animated films…”: Ed Catmull, AI, 3/19/04.

369            “Not too much from the industry at large…”: David DiFrancesco, AI, 3/19/04.

371            “Much to my surprise, Ben said that he had nothing…”: Alvy Ray Smith, whitepaper, 1 Aug 84.

372            “We always encouraged the team to publish…”: Alvy Ray Smith, LFL History Project, Interview by Pamela Glintenkamp, 1/23/02.

372            “Having a badge that said ‘Lucasfilm’ made me…”: Noah Falstein, AI, 9/25/04.

373            [When Alvy spoke at his seminar, he raved about…]: Ed Catmull, AI, 3/19/04.

373            [They were sneaked into the auditorium after the lights were dimmed for the films…]: Alvy Ray Smith, LFL History Project, Interview by Pamela Glintenkamp, 1/23/02.

373            [(Siggraph reels traditionally consisted of TV…]: Chip Morningstar blog, http://www.fudco.com/habitat/archives/000021.html.

373            “People there know when they’re seeing…”: Alvy Ray Smith, LFL History Project, Interview by Pamela Glintenkamp, 1/23/02.

373            “because I was the director of this piece…”: Ibid.

374            “The film comes across rather like a sleek puppet…”: Toronto Globe and Mail, Aug 18, 1984, “Much-ballyhooed animated film a disappointment” by Stephen Godfrey.

376            “of innovation, prosperity, and high executive salaries…”: http://home.neo.rr.com/memoriesofpast/hist.htm

376            “My proposal, based on very detailed flow charts of how their house…”: Alvy Ray Smith, E, 9/9/04.

 

Chapter 22: Playing Games

 

Special acknowledgement to Chip Morningstar, for the permission excerpt or adapt some sections from his blog: http://www.fudco.com/habitat/archives/000021.html

 

379            ”It's misleading to suppose there's any basic difference between education and entertainment…”: http://faculty.uml.edu/sgallagher/marshall

 

379            “They hadn’t released any yet…but…”: Noah Falstein, AI, 9/25/04.

379            “I think they were afraid I would contaminate their purity…”: Ibid.

379            “When computers came along, I bought an Atari…”: Web.

380            “Ed and I got very nervous because we knew that if we didn’t have…”: Bob Doris, AI.

381            “I was convinced that personal computers were going…”: Steve Arnold, AI, 3/27/04.

381            “It was an act of desperation…”: Ibid.

381            [Atari fired Ray Kassar in the fall of 1983…]: Doug Crockford, AI, n.d.

381            “We are going to reignite the consumer’s…”: “Atari Refuses to let Video Game Fad Die,” Business Week, May 21, 1984..

381            “It was clear to me that the company didn’t…”: Steve Arnold, AI, 3/27/04.

382            “I puttered around a bit…”: Noah Falstein, AI, 9/25/04.

382            “One of the things that bothered me a bit about…”: Ibid.

383            “At the time, I believe this was the most expensive…”: Gary Winnick, E, 10/15/04.

383            “a magic place of literary memory“: “Ted Nelson and Xanadu” - http://www.iath.virginia.edu/elab/hfl0155.html.

383            “Few people could actually work with Ted for more…”: Chip Morningstar, E, 9/26/04.

384            [It was seen on T-shirts…]: Atari Press Release.

385            [although only a few years earlier the company had peaked…]: Oakland Tribune, 7/7/84.

385            “There was a general sense of horror…”: Noah Falstein, AI, 9/25/04.

386            [Without much to go on, the guards were rumored…]: Chip Morningstar, E, 9/26/04.

386            [let employees leave with their…]: Owen Rubin, AI, 7/26/04.

386            [Bob Doris and Steve Arnold met…]: Bob Doris, E, 7/16/04.

386            “The Hutt Brothers: Jabba, Jack.”: From Chip Morningstar, E, 9/26/04 - and from Bob Doris, AI, n.d.

387            “We thought it might be more interesting…”: Chip Morningstar Blog http://www.fudco.com/habitat/archives/000021.html.

387            [At the January’s CES show…]: Computer+Software News, 2/18/85.

387            “We are trying to bring together some of the excitement…”: Marin Independent Journal, 8/31/85.

387            “A scientist has mysteriously disappeared from an abandoned…”: Ibid.

388            “You play the part of a wily techno-scavenger…”: Ibid.

388            “We need to come up with a name for Noah’s…”: Chip Morningstar, E, 9/26/04,

391            [Doug Crockford recalled Lucas’ telling them that it was time…]: Doug Crockford, IA, 9/27/04.

391            [He said that Lucas had been supporting the company long enough…]: Doug Norby, AI, 9/30/04.

391              [It was going to be a serious reorientation]: Ibid.

391            “We’re going to concentrate on movies…”: Doug Crockford, AI, 9/27/04.

391            [Norby was friendly but steely. He said that Lucas had been supporting…]: Doug Norby, AI, 9/30/04.

 

Chapter 23: Rendezvous with Reality

394            “Do what you have to do…”: Doug Norby, AI, 9/30/04.

394            “There were people problems in the company…”: Doug Norby, AI, 12/2/04.

394            “It’s a huge mindshift for the people…”: Ibid.

395            “We got the division to be a whole lot more efficient…”: Ibid.

395            [The fixed-price bids, now based on extensive knowledge of the costs of effects…]: Ibid.

395            “We owed her a big chunk of money…”: Ibid.

395            “I just can’t do it; you’re on your own…”: Doug Norby, AI, 8/27/04.

396            [They visited the company and toured the facilities, “kicking the tires…]: Chip Morningstar, AI, 9/25/04.

396            [Only months earlier they had taken a 25 percent stake…]: Web: Business Week 1998.

396            “[They] wanted too much of the company for…”: Doug Norby, AI, 8/27/04.

396            “It’s a George thing. He’s successful at creating a myth…”: Bob Doris, AI, 6/14/02.

396            [I’m sure the Dougs weren’t doing anything more…]: Ibid.

396            “That wasn’t the case…”: Doug Norby, AI, 12/2/04.

396            “You’ve got two good things here…”: Ibid.

297            [Itel used the profits to diversify, getting into the shipping container business and short line railroads…]: http://www.trainweb.org/mccloudrails/History/History07.html

399            “How come working for the man…”: Jim Clark paraphrased by Alvy Ray Smith, AI, 6/11/02. (A similar tale recounted in The Second Coming of Steve Jobs).

400            “I wasn’t really a marketing person, but when Ed needed…”: Tom Porter, AI, 12/6/04.

400            “The special property of the Pixar was that it could handle…”: Bob Drebin, AI, 11/30/04.

400            “’Here,’ they said, ‘if you want to…’”: Ibid.

403            “From a product standpoint…”: Doug Norby, AI, 3/10/04.

403            “Expectations were way ahead of reality…”: Bob Doris, AI ,10/22/04.

403            “Cultural change is the hardest thing in business…”: Doug Norby, AI, 12/2/04.

404            “It was early in the spin-off process…”: Ed Catmull, AI, 3/19/04.

404            “We’re the business guys…”: Alvy Ray Smith, AI, 6/11/02.

404            “The reason they were instructed not to negotiate…”: Doug Norby, AI, 12/2/04.

404            [Lucasfilm initially wanted $15 million for their stock…]: Ed Catmull, AI, 3/19/04.

405            “I knew it was going to be hard to sell…”: Doug Norby, AI, 12/2/04.

405            [Second was Siemens in Germany…]: Gabor, Andrea. “A Better Kind of Image from the Wizards of Hollywood,” Business Week, April 1, 1985.

405            [They wanted both EDS (a new division…]: Bob Doris, AI, 3/10/04.

405            [Philips to each give up $10 million for their…]: Ibid.

405            [At General Motors, for capital acquisitions…]: Ed Catmull, AI, 3/19/04.

408            [Dennis Muren had been skeptical of the computer’s…]: Alvy Ray Smith, E, 8/29/04.

408            “It’s like we designed this very sophisticated race car…”: “Miller, Michael W. “The Larger Market—Producers of computer graphics for Hollywood find new opportunities in science and industry,” Wall Street Journal Sept. 16, 1985.

409              “[ILM could see] that the Graphics Group wanted to…”: George Joblove, AI, 7/1/02.

410            “’Too expensive,’ he said. ‘I’m more in the $10 to $15…”: Ed Catmull, AI, n.d.

411            “’Just wanted to tell you up front,’ the young men in sharp…”: Alvy Ray Smith, AI, 6/11/02.

412            “It was one of the most tense meetings I’ve ever been…”: Ibid.

413            “We had EDS at the table…”; Doug Norby, AI, 8/27/04.

414            “He knew we were desperate…”: Ibid.

 

Chapter 24: Stay Small, Be the Best, Don’t Lose Any Money

417            “Stay small, be the best, and don’t lose any money…”: Steve Arnold, AI, 3/27/04.

418            “the expectation was that people would pay us to do…”: Chip Morningstar blog, http://www.fudco.com/habitat/archives/000021.html.

419            “Nobody was interested in what I had been doing at Atari…”:  Doug Crockford, AI, 9/27/04.

419            “I was going to be in the games group…”: Ibid.

419            “I think you guys would really like this because you have a weird sense…”: Champlin, Charles. George Lucas—The Creative Impulse. Harry N. Abrams Inc., USA, 1992, p123.

422            “[Adventure games] were kinda frustrating….”: Ron Gilbert, AI, 9/23/04.

423            thousands of miles…”: From Lucasfilm White Paper, 6/28/85, “The Lucasfilm Universe” by Chip Morningstar.

 

426            [In 1985 Quantum had about 50,000 subscribers…]: http://www.atarimagazines.com/startv3n3/prodigyknowledge.html (Start. Vol 3, No. 3, Oct. 88)

428            “’A lot of my work,‘ said Crockford, ‘was dealing with….”: Doug Crockford, AI, 9/27/04.

428            [DVI]: Doug Crockford, E, 6/25/05.

428            [DVI] http://www.mtsu.edu/~itconf/proceed97/dvi.html

430            “Once we returned to Marin, Lucasfilm’s…”: Chip Morningstar blog, http://www.fudco.com/habitat/archives/000021.html.

431            “It would have been a huge success …”: Steve Arnold, AI, 3/27/03.

 

Chapter 25: Into the Twilight Zone

433            There’s a wide difference…”: Evans, Harold. They Made America. Little Brown and Company, Boston, 2004.

435            “He took the morning shift up…”: Andy Moorer, AI, 6/24/02.

436            “to make sure everything was working…”: John Snell, AI, 11/19/04.

436            “The sound of a grizzly bear on a track is all chopped…”: Andy Moorer, AI, 6/24/02.

444            “On the one hand I’m doing these huge productions…”: Champlin, Charles. George Lucas—The Creative Impulse. Harry N. Abrams Inc., USA, 1992, p117.

446            “When 900 years old you are, look as good…”: Return of the Jedi, screenplay by Lawrence Kasdan and George Lucas.

448            “The studios aren’t interested in this sort of thing…”: Richard Wolfe, Fox Telecommunications VP for engineering and video, (in) California magazine, Oct 1981.

449            “I had been doing the usual videodisc, stereo vision…”: Ken Carson, E, 10/5/04.

451            [He also reported that his editing time was shortened…]: Sontag, Sherry, “Film Editing Goes Electronic,” New York Times, Oct 19, 1986.

451            “I knew I was a guinea pig…”: Ibid.

 

Chapter 26: Esoteric Unto Occult

453            “So they took it out on you…”: Bob Doris, E, 8/27/04.

453            “he would have trouble keeping his empire afloat…”: Marin Independent Journal, 2/27/86 - paraphrasing a Wall Street Journal article of 1/23/86.

455            “Sometimes new things that are so valuable are still slow…”: Sontag, Sherry, “Film Editing Goes Electronic,” New York Times, Oct 19, 1986.

456            “When it’s good enough for…”: Droid Works internal memo, 6/13/86.

459            [The big productions now were St. Elsewhere, Remington Steele, and Hill Street Blues]: http://www.museum.tv/archives/etv/T/htmlT/tinkergrant/tinkergrant.htm

460            [In the first ten days, absolutely critical in the Hollywood system…]: Numbers from LA Times.

460            “’They’re all interesting movies,’ said Lucas…”: Champlin, Charles. George Lucas—The Creative Impulse. Harry N. Abrams Inc., USA, 1992, p 117.

464            “Yes, we are going out of business; there is no SoundDroid…”: Ken Yas, E, 10/9/86.

465            “There is no reason whatsoever to interpret this current…”: Augie Hess, E, 1/26/87.

465            “cease commercial manufacturing and marketing of the EditDroid and SoundDroid…”: Lucasfilm press release, 1/23/87.

465            “You need to understand…”: Eller, Claudia, Hollywood Ponders Droid Works Demise,” Hollywood Reporter, 2/6/87.

 

EPILOGUE

469            “Lightworks was like us…”: George Lucas, AI, 4/28/04.

470            “I think the Avid…”: Ibid.

475            [Pixar IPO] Alvy Ray Smith, AI, n .d.

475            [Pixar IPO] http://www.forbes.com/strategies/2004/10/22/cx_sr_1022ipooutlook.html

476            “Man, I want to be able to do that…”: John Knoll, AI, 4/13/04.

477            “Back before T2…”: Shay, Don and Duncan, Jody. The Making of Jurassic Park, Ballantine Books, USA 1993, p48.

478            “I call that marketing rounding…”: Tom Holman, AI, 11/22/04.

478            “It wasn’t always an easy partnership…”: Tom Scott, AI, 5/4/04.

479            Games was a good group…”: Doug Norby, AI, 3/10/04.

480            “In the end, it was Habitat…”: Chip Morningstar, E., 10/2/04.

480            “Everything you do at Lucasfilm…”: Noah Falstein, San Francisco Chronicle, 1998.

481            “He would enjoy the benefits…”: Cowie, Peter. Coppola. Andre Deutsch Ltd, London, 1989, p 210.

482            “Zoetrope failed because…”: Ibid, p 220.

482            “I am basically interested in a form of super television…”: Ibid.

482            “I was creatively very stifled…”: George Lucas, AI, 4/28/04.

482            “I could see that George was looking...”: Rick McCallum, AI, 6/3/05.

482            Even from that early time…”: Ibid.

482            It was a real place…”: Ibid.

484            [prequel data] “Lucas the Loner Returns to Wars”

484              [hidef prequel data] http://www.cinema.com/films/140/star_wars_episode_i_the_phantom_menace/production_notes.phtml

484              To me…” George Lucas, interview with AP: http://www.st-v-sw.net/STSWcanonSE.html

485            [info]: http://www.bealecorner.com/trv900/sw24p.html

485            In his lifetime…”: Haskel Wexler, AI, 12/3/04.

487              For two decades…” Intro to -- Champlin, Charles. George Lucas—The Creative Impulse. Harry N. Abrams Inc., USA, 1992, p18.

487            All I did…”: George Lucas, AI, 4/28/04.